- Jaén is a city in south-central Spain. The name is derived from the Arabic word jayyān. It is the capital of the province of Jaén. It is located in the autonomous community of Andalusia. The inhabitants of the city are known as Jiennenses. Its population is 116,731, about one-sixth of the population of the province. Recently Jaén has had a great increase in cultural tourism. The city is also known as the World Capital of Olive Oil, because it is the biggest producer of the oil, known by locals as liquid gold. The layout of Jaén is determined by its position in the hills of the Santa Catalina mountains, with steep, narrow streets, in the historical central city district. The city of Jaén is the administrative and industrial centre for the province. Industrial establishments in the city include chemical works, tanneries, distilleries, cookies factories and textile factories. On 1 April 1938, during the Spanish Civil War, the city was bombed by the Nazis.
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