- The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, signed on 26 July 1581 in the Hague conform the decision made by the States-General of the Netherlands in Antwerp on 22 July 1581, formally declared all magistrates in the provinces which united in the Union of Utrecht absolved of their oath of allegiance to their overlord Philip II. It stated that by oppressing and violating the ancient rights of his subjects, Philip was considered to have vacated his throne. As such, it was the formal declaration of independence of the Dutch Low Countries.
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